Archives de catégorie : Iles de la mer Égée

Silvan Pollozek, Jan Hendrik Passoth, Infrastructuring European migration and border control: The logistics of registration and identification at Moria hotspot, Environment and Planning D, March 19, 2019

online : https://doi.org/10.1177/0263775819835819

« This paper examines Moria hotspot in Greece as a logistical site which fulfills two different functions within the European migration and border regime. It locates, contains, and sorts individuals locally at the external borders of the EU and creates, inserts, and processes data for controlling people on the move. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Greece, including interviews with local administrators from the Registration and Identification Service, Médecins du Monde, Frontex and Hellenic Police and a collection of internal and publicly available planning, policy, and management documents and handbooks, the paper scrutinizes how both the movement of migrants and data is organized at the site. By developing an analytic lens of logistics, it outlines a specific mode of infrastructuring which aligns staff from different organizations with databases, devices, and migrants all in one place and organizes mundane practices such as filling out forms, taking fingerprints, signing, and entering datasets along a chain. That way the hotspot is able to locate, sort, and detain those who arrive at the hardened EU border and to create a data infrastructure for controlling, monitoring, and governing further movement by processing data through the bureaucratic channels of the EU’s transnational control assemblages. »

Keywords : Actor-Network Theory, border, control, data, infrastructure, logistics, migration.

illustration : Laurence Pillant (programme Médimurs), Lesbos 2011

Marina Rafenberg, A Lesbos, le cauchemar des réfugiés de Moria, lemonde.fr, 13/12/2017

Conçu pour accueillir 2 300 personnes, le camp situé sur l’île grecque en abrite plus de 6 700.

« Sur un mur, un graffiti « Bienvenue en prison » donne le ton. Au milieu des champs d’oliviers de Lesbos, le camp de Moria est entouré de barbelés, surveillé par la police, interdit théoriquement aux journalistes. Le site est l’un des cinq « hotspots » de Grèce, où les réfugiés sont entassés le temps que leurs demandes d’asile soient étudiées.

Conçu pour accueillir 2 300 personnes, il abrite désormais plus de 6 700 réfugiés, d’après les chiffres du ministère grec de l’immigration. Alors que l’accord UE-Turquie du 20 mars 2016 avait pratiquement mis fin aux traversées, depuis le mois d’août les arrivées sont à nouveau régulières : 15 800 personnes ont accosté sur les côtes de l’île grecque en quatre mois, surtout des familles, originaires de Syrie, d’Irak ou d’Afghanistan d’après le Haut-Commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés (HCR). Certes, en août 2015, 3 000 réfugiés pouvaient débarquer à Lesbos en une journée, mais la route vers Athènes était alors libre, et les réfugiés ne restaient que quelques jours sur l’île.

Dans le camp, à l’approche de l’hiver, aucun chauffage n’a été installé. Lors de pluies importantes, les tentes sont inondées. L’eau courante n’est à disposition que deux ou trois heures par jour. Les ordures s’entassent et les toilettes sont dans un état affligeant. Plusieurs ONG n’opèrent plus à l’intérieur de l’enceinte, le gouvernement gère directement tous les services. « Les médecins sont peu disponibles, et d’habitude, ils ne te donnent même pas un antidouleur », soupire Anin, une jeune Syrienne de Deir ez-Zor qui souffre des dents.

« Ce camp à la porte de l’Europe est bien pire que ceux que j’ai pu visiter en Turquie, au Liban, en Jordanie ! », lance un humanitaire en mission. « Nous sommes traités comme des animaux », s’énerve Mustafa, un Palestinien de Yarmouk, en Syrie. »   (…)

http://www.lemonde.fr/europe/article/2017/12/13/a-lesbos-le-cauchemar-des-refugies-de-moria_5229015_3214.html#0uhZyYHCUBUDJSfb.99

photo @Laurence Pillant, Lesbos, 2013 (programme Médimurs)

 

The Refugee Archipelago: The Inside Story of What Went Wrong in Greece, Daniel Howden, Apostolis Fotiadis, newsdeeply.com, 06/03/2017

Refugees Deeply investigates failures in the most expensive humanitarian response in history, which played out during the refugee crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean.

(…) « The archipelago strategy, while commended for avoiding refugee ghettos, placed an administrative and cost burden that the misfiring alliance of the Greek government and international organizations could not sustain. It also revealed the shocking absence of a functioning chain of command.

Ask exactly how many refugee camps there are in Greece and no one is certain. Migration ministry bulletins list 39 camps, some of which are empty; others are mothballed and others still are in the planning phase but do not appear on the list. The UNHCR said there were more than 50, but did not give a specific number.

When the border was closed and the West Balkan route was blocked, as many as 11,000 refugees piled up in Idomeni. Behind the scenes a scramble for potential sites has been going on for months directed by Mouzalas and his close circle of advisers, including Alexandridis. Among the most problematic choices they made were a string of privately owned warehouses including Oreokastro, where the Madrati family found themselves, the Karamanlis tannery outside Thessaloniki, and Softex.

These sites, chosen in preference to public ones, also lacked all basic utilities. They were not served by sewerage, electricity or water systems sufficient for large populations. Transport connections – essential for refugees, who need to access health and asylum services – were largely nonexistent. At Softex the public bus company operates no services because the area has been a hub for drug dealing and is considered dangerous.

The insistence on these sites further complicated the role of the UNHCR and ECHO, which are not allowed to develop private property. When U.N. officials objected they were promised in private by Mouzalas that the sites would close after a two-month stopgap. Mouzalas declined to comment on the reported promises. Several of the sites continue to operate to this day.

“It’s inexplicable that they were not able to find publicly owned sites,” says the country director of one of the large international NGOs operating in Greece. “To have so many sites on private land is madness, and they’re paying rent for unacceptable conditions.” » (…)

https://www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/articles/2017/03/06/the-refugee-archipelago-the-inside-story-of-what-went-wrong-in-greece

photo@ L. Pillant (programme Médimurs), Centre de rétention de Pagani, Lesbos, 2011

En Grèce, le cri de colère des réfugiés et des ONG contre l’accord UE-Turquie, Marina Rafenberg, lemonde.fr, 20/03/2017

Un an après la mise en vigueur de l’accord, les associations s’alarment d’une disposition qui, selon elles, bafoue le droit d’asile.

 (…) « Un an après l’accord entre l’Union européenne et la Turquie, près de 62 400 migrants seraient toujours bloqués en Grèce, d’après les chiffres du gouvernement grec. C’est à Léros, Cos, Chios, Samos, Lesbos, les cinq centres d’identification et d’enregistrements des migrants dits « hot spots », que la situation est la plus critique. Selon le Haut-Commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés (HCR), ces cinq îles peuvent accueillir jusqu’à 8 759 personnes, alors que 14 000 demandeurs d’asile s’y trouveraient actuellement.

« A Lesbos, le camp de Moria est en surchauffe. Les conditions sont difficiles. Cet hiver, nous avons vu notamment des tentes non chauffées abriter des familles, trois personnes sont également mortes dans ce centre… », rappelle Efi Latsoudi qui, depuis 2012, gère à Lesbos un centre pour les réfugiés les plus vulnérables arrivés sur l’île (femmes enceintes, jeunes enfants, handicapés) et qui a été récompensée en 2016 par le prix Nansen pour les réfugiés décerné par le HCR. « Nous observons de plus en plus de cas de dépression et de stress aigu chez les réfugiés. Ils ont peur d’être renvoyés en Turquie. Certains sont depuis un an dans les camps sans savoir ce qu’ils vont devenir… », expose-t-elle.

Selon Médecins sans frontières, les automutilations et tentatives de suicide sont en « nette augmentation ». D’après le rapport de l’organisation non gouvernementle (ONG), à Lesbos les psychologues ont reçu ces derniers mois trois fois plus de patients souffrant de stress post-traumatique. » (…)

http://www.lemonde.fr/europe/article/2017/03/20/en-grece-le-cri-de-colere-des-refugies-et-des-ong-contre-l-accord-ue-turquie_5097450_3214.html#z4udr33s4Y6ZHY1w.99

Lire aussi :   Quel est le bilan du pacte migratoire UE-Turquie au bout d’un an ?

Lire aussi :   Flambée anti-réfugiés sur les îles de la mer Egée

Lire aussi :   Sous la neige de Lesbos, l’hiver éreinte les réfugiés

 

Montage photos @ S. Mangriotis (programme Médimurs) http://www.stephanosmangriotis.com/projets/

Voir : Archéologie d'une frontière, S. Mangriotis, L. Pillant, programme Médimurs

https://enigmur.hypotheses.org/category/medimurs/iles-med/iles-de-la-mer-egee

 

 

 

Shipwreck Survivors Stranded by a Faltering Deal, Preethi Nallu – Iason Athanasiadis, newsdeeply.com,02/11/2016

@Photo : Called the “graveyard of life vests,” the aerial view of this site located about 45 minutes from Skala Sikamineas is a telling visual of the number of arrivals over the past year. (Iason Athanasiadis)ibidem

« As an E.U.–Turkey agreement on refugees nears collapse, Preethi Nallu and Iason Athanasiadis report from the Greek island of Lesbos on how the deal never fully stopped the deadly voyages and has left survivors of such tragedies in agonizing limbo.

Mytilini, Greece – The fishing trawler overturned just as it approached the volcanic island’s rocky bay, whose shorelines appear bottomless at night. Ramy Qudmany, a 23-year-old from Syria, heard the panic-stricken shouts of his fellow passengers: “The children are trapped under the boat.”

He swam back toward them, but his heavy clothing slowed him down. As Qudmany grappled under the overturned vessel with one outstretched arm, he felt a little girl’s hand.

Qudmany thinks the girl had probably already stopped breathing by the time he reached her. Yet he continued to swim toward the shore, holding onto a life vest with one arm, and the limp body of the girl with the other, unable to let go.

On July 12, the Syrian asylum seeker was on board one of the few boats still crossing from Izmir on the Turkish coast and the port of Mytilini on the Greek island of Lesbos. He and five others survived. A young family of four – a Syrian man named Fauz, his wife and their children, including the girl – did not.

When the Greek coast guard finally pulled them out of the water six hours later, the doctor on board the rescue mission pronounced the girl dead, with rigor mortis visibly setting in, forcing back her eyelids.

Qudmany and the rest of the survivors are among those who have made the crossing since an E.U. deal with Turkey came into effect in March. They are also among the asylum seekers who could be returned to Turkey under its terms and conditions.

The deal has slowed the stream of boats across this 6-mile (10km) stretch of the Aegean Sea – known for its menacing tides – to a relative trickle. Yet the crossings never completely stopped. Hundreds continue to arrive every week and people are still dying en route.

Meanwhile, the agreement has left survivors of such tragedies stranded in agonizing limbo. The predictions of critics who warned that the en masse returns under the agreement would be almost impossible to implement are now coming true. With tensions growing between Turkey and Europe, the deal itself is teetering toward collapse. »   (…)

https://www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/articles/2016/11/02/long-read-shipwreck-survivors-stranded-by-a-faltering-deal

20

@Photo : Cimetière des bateaux, Lampedusa, 2014, Stéphanie Bonnefille