Samuel Norton Chambers, Geoffrey Alan Boyce, Sarah Launius & Alicia Dinsmore, Mortality, Surveillance and the Tertiary “Funnel Effect” on the U.S.-Mexico Border: A Geospatial Modeling of the Geography of Deterrence, Journal of Borderlands Studies, 31 Jan 2019

https://doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2019.1570861

ABSTRACT

Theories of migration deterrence have long posited that border enforcement infrastructure pushes migration routes into more rugged and deadly terrain, driving an increase in migrant mortality. Applying geospatial analysis of landscape and human variables in one highly-trafficked corridor of the Arizona / Sonora border, we test whether the expansion of surveillance infrastructure has in fact shifted migrants’ routes toward areas that are more remote and difficult to traverse. We deploy a modeling methodology, typically used in archaeological and military science, to measure the energy expenditure of persons traversing the borderlands. Outcomes of this model are then compared to the changes in border infrastructure and records of fatality locations. Findings show that there is a significant correlation between the location of border surveillance technology, the routes taken by migrants, and the locations of recovered human remains in the southern Arizona desert. Placed in the context of ongoing efforts by the United States to geographically expand and concentrate border surveillance and enforcement infrastructure, we argue that this suggests a third “funnel effect” that has the outcome of maximizing the physiological toll imposed by the landscape on unauthorized migrants, long after migration routes have moved away from traditional urban crossing areas.

KEYWORDS: GIScience, health, human migration, border surveillance, biopolitics, spatial analysis

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illustration @ Damien Simonneau, avec son accord

Université d’été pluridisciplinaire et internationale sur le travail : Travail et migrations internationales, Bordeaux,1-5 juillet 2019

Organisée par le Comptrasec (UMR 5114 CNRS – Université de Bordeaux), l’équipe Epicene (U 1219) et le Gresco (EA 3815) en collaboration avec les universités de la Nouvelle Aquitaine, l’Université d’été pluridisciplinaire sur le Travail s’adresse aux Masters 2ème année, aux doctorants, aux post-doctorants et aux jeunes chercheurs pour les initier et les convaincre des atouts et des ressources d’une approche pluridisciplinaire et comparative pour mieux appréhender et comprendre les bouleversements à l’œuvre en ce début de XXIème siècle. Le travail est au centre des échanges humains ; il est un lien économique et social entre les hommes et les pays. Associées à la liberté de mouvement qui est une liberté publique fondamentale de toute personne, les migrations internationales sont soumises du point de vue du droit international à une asymétrie. Le fait de quitter son pays est en effet une liberté protégée tandis que le fait d’entrer et de séjourner dans un autre pays que le sien n’est pas un droit de l’homme ; c’est un droit qui relève du pouvoir régalien des Etats. Les parcours migratoires traduisent dès lors non plus seulement un projet personnel mais une adaptation à des situations administratives et juridiques qui s’avèrent de plus en plus complexes et de plus en plus fermées, voire hostiles à l’accueil de l’étranger. Toute migration, quelle que soit sa cause (économique, politique, humanitaire, familiale, éducative, etc.), entretient un rapport avec le travail dont la complexité est régulièrement relevée. Tandis que ces relations sont présentées souvent de façon très tranchée et antagoniste dans le débat public, les recherches scientifiques, pour leur part, donnent à voir une réalité bien plus nuancée, qu’il s’agisse de l’ampleur des migrations elles-mêmes, de leur évolution récente, de leur impact sur le marché du travail (salaires, emploi, etc.). Ainsi, les migrants présentent des profils variés, parfois opposés (très, très peu voire non qualifiés) et les espaces migratoires évoluent ne serait-ce que celui constitué par l’espace européen. Si on trouve nombre de migrants affectés à des travaux 3D, s’ils peuvent aussi être dans des situations de vulnérabilité, voire d’extrême vulnérabilité (sans papiers) et /ou exploités dans des conditions indignes, contraires au travail décent, au contraire d’autres peuvent s’appuyer sur leur mobilité et en tirer profit pour accéder à des formations de très haut niveau, à des postes de responsabilité dans les pays les plus favorables. Le travail et les migrations internationales se prêtent bien, voire exigent une approche pluridisciplinaire. L’ensemble des disciplines mobilisées (droit, économie, démographie, sociologie, histoire, sciences politiques, psychologie, littérature, ergonomie) dans le cadre de cette université d’été devrait permettre d’appréhender la diversité des figures de migrants, de leurs situations, de leur environnement professionnel (secteur d’activité, conditions de travail et de vie), de leur intégration dans le pays d’accueil et du rôle y relatif des acteurs de la société civile ainsi que des institutions.

S’inscrire (date limite d’inscription : 17/06/2019 avec hébergement ou 24/06/2016 inscription simple)

https://utravail2019.sciencesconf.org/resource/page/id/2

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https://doi.org/10.1177/0263775819843677

Abstract

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Keywords

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Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space- Volume: 37, Number: 3 (May 2019)

https://journals.sagepub.com/toc/epcb/37/3

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Abstract

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Abstract

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Abstract

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https://journals.sagepub.com/toc/epcb/37/3

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programme et inscription : http://www4.usaintlouis.be/4DACTION/WEB_Agendafiche/311/39026

Abstract

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illustration@Damien Simonneau, San Luis, Etats-Unis