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Paolo Cuttitta, Delocalization, Humanitarianism, and Human Rights: The Mediterranean Border Between Exclusion and Inclusion, Antipode, 2017, p.1–21

Abstract

« By reflecting on both the exclusionary and the inclusionary role of humanitarian migration and border management in the Central Mediterranean, this paper explores the relationship of humanitarianism with the delocalization of the EU border and with human rights. First, the paper analyses the role of human rights in the institutional humanitarian discourse about migration and border management at the Mediterranean EU border. The paper then analyses the Italian operation Mare Nostrum and, more generally, Italian humanitarianized border management in the Central Mediterranean. In doing this, it shows that humanitarianism contributes to the discursive legitimation and spatial delocalization of exclusionary policies and practices. Moreover, humanitarianism contributes to a symbolically and legally subordinate inclusion of migrants in the European space. While such humanitarian inclusion can be more inclusive than what human rights would require, it is posited as an act of grace rather than an enhancement of human rights. In both its exclusionary and inclusionary dimension, humanitarianism transcends and expands territorial boundaries by outsourcing responsibilities and enhancing delocalized border management »

doi: 10.1111/anti.12337

PDF:

http://www.dsps.unict.it/sites/default/files/files/Cuttitta_Delocalization%2C%20Humanitarianism%20and%20Human%20Rights.pdf

Beste İşleyen,Turkey’s governance of irregular migration at European Union borders, Environment and Planning D, 2018

Beste İşleyen, »Turkey’s governance of irregular migration at European Union borders: Emerging geographies of care and control »,  Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, March 2018

Abstract

« Combining insights from critical studies on humanitarianism and scholarly work emphasising everyday practices, this study examines Turkish policing of human mobility at European Union borders in two border cities: Edirne and İzmir. Through a focus on the central understandings, justifications and operational responses by Turkish border officials, the article highlights the intertwinement of care and control as inherent to humanitarianism in the daily governance of mobile populations at Turkey’s western borders. In so doing, the findings draw attention to discursive articulations and practices, while pointing to their moral, emotional and cultural elements. The article advances the literature by underlining the centrality of geography in impacting on the logics and practices of governing mobility within the territory of the nation state. The findings also underscore variations in border practices and the embodiment of humanitarianism between the two border cities under investigation as well as across the country. In addition, the article adds to debates on the emerging spaces of humanitarianism by bringing into focus the operation of humanitarian border policing in Turkey before departure and/or after the unsuccessful attempt of border crossing. »

Keywords: Turkey, the European Union, irregular migration, humanitarianism, border governance

PDF :

https://doi.org/10.1177/0263775818762132

Martina Tazzioli, Glenda Garelli, Containment beyond detention: The hotspot system and disrupted migration movements across Europe, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, February 2018

Abstract

« This article deals with the ways in which migrants are controlled, contained and selected after landing in Italy and in Greece, drawing attention to strategies of containment aimed at disciplining mobility and showing how they are not narrowed to detention infrastructures. The article starts by tracing a genealogy of the use of the term ‘hotspot’ in policy documents and suggests that the multiplication of hotspots-like spaces is related to a reconceptualisation of the border as a critical site that requires prompt enforcement intervention. The article moves on by investigating the mechanisms of partitioning, identification and preventive illegalisation that are at stake in the hotspots of Lampedusa and Lesbos. Hotspots are not analysed here as sites of detention per se: rather, the essay turns the attention to the channels of forced mobility that are connected to the Hotspot System, focusing in particular on the forced transfers of migrants from the Italian cities of Ventimiglia and Como to the hotspot of Taranto. The article concludes by analysing channels of forced mobility in the light of the fight against ‘secondary movements’ that is at the core of the current European Union’s political agenda, suggesting that further academic research could engage in a genealogy of practices of migration containment. »

Keywords: Hotspot, migration, detention, containment, Mediterranean

https://doi.org/10.1177/0263775818759335

 

Paolo Cuttitta, Depoliticization through search and rescue? Humanitarian NGOs and migration management in the central Mediterranean. Geopolitics, July 2017.

ABSTRACT

« This article analyses the search and rescue (SAR) activities carried out by three NGOs (MOAS, MSF and Sea-Watch) in the Central Mediterranean, and asks whether and in how far non-governmental SAR contributes to the repoliticization of the EU maritime border. The article first introduces the concept of depoliticization/repoliticization, as well as that of humanitarianization. Two sections summarize the development of the SAR regime and the governmentalization of international waters in the Strait of Sicily from the Cap Anamur case to 2016, and from late 2016 to recent days. Against this backdrop, the article analyses the different political positions taken by MOAS, MSF and Sea-Watch, their operational activities, as well as their cooperation and relations with the other actors involved in SAR. The three NGOs react differently to the contradictions that are typical of humanitarian non-state action. MOAS keeps a neutral political profile, whereas MSF and Sea-Watch regard their SAR activities as part of a political, not only humanitarian commitment. While the convergence of delocalized state sovereignty and humanitarian reason leaves hardly any room for manoeuvre, MSF and Sea-Watch try to question and contrast governmental policies and practices, as well as to turn international waters into a political stage from which they can make their voice heard and on which they can play the watchdog role. »

Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2017.1344834.

Guido Nicolosi, Lampedusa. Les damnés de la mer, Editions de l’Aube, 2017

 « Lampedusa est devenue un îlot d’espoir pour les damnés de la mer, et un miroir pour l’Europe et ses valeurs. Guido Nicolosi nous offre un ouvrage très intéressant, car pour traiter des drames des migrants et des réfugiés qui débarquent dans des conditions dramatiques au sud de l’Italie, il considère les imaginaires et les représentations sociales des acteurs et des observateurs, notamment des médias. À la carte territoriale et physique, Guido Nicolosi superpose les cartes mentales. Telle est la grande originalité de sa démarche qui confronte les imaginaires des acteurs à différents niveaux. » Pierre Musso

 « Le livre de Guido Nicolosi s’ouvre sur le drame lui-même, sur la tragédie vécue et restituée par l’enquête. Comment les habitants de l’île pourraient-ils sortir indemnes d’une telle expérience ? Le drame de Lampedusa et des ­nau­fragés est l’occasion d’une réflexion sur les migrations et les questions de territoire. » Valérie Souffron

(ed.)

Guido Nicolosi est un sociologue et spécialiste des médias sicilien. Il enseigne à l’université de Catane, et il est membre associé au Cetcopra, Paris-1