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Pop-up governance: Transforming the management of migrant populations through humanitarian and security practices in Lesbos, Greece, 2015–2017 Evie Papada , Anna Papoutsi , Joe Painter , Antonis Vradis , December 8, 2019, Environment and Planning D

“This paper intervenes in recent debates on humanitarianism and security in migration by introducing the notion of ‘pop-up governance’. It reflects on our two year-long fieldwork on Lesbos, Greece at the peak of Europe’s migrant reception crisis (2015–2017). We present recent developments in border and migration management in the EU and we position these within recent migration debates. We then present the two main facets guiding migrant reception and governance in Lesbos, namely humanitarianism and security. Through our interviews with humanitarian and security actors we show how top-level government decisions followed and resembled the flexibility and adaptability of humanitarian and security operations. We define this turn as ‘pop-up governance’, which comprises a practice-based, abruptly introduced and retractable set of governance mechanisms responding to the situation at hand. We argue that the seemingly disorganised management of migration actually bore hallmarks of a new, flexible and adaptable mode of governance. Finally, we show how ‘pop-up governance’ can help move beyond present understanding of governance based either on the rule or its exception. This has important implications for our comprehension of migration, humanitarianism, security and the governance of vulnerable populations and contemporary socio-political crises.”

Keywords :  Lesbos, hotspot, humanitarian border, pop-up governance, migration management

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0263775819891167

Corps migrants aux frontières méditerranéennes de l’Europe, Critique internationale, 2019/2 (83)

“La dangerosité croissante des parcours migratoires est étroitement liée au « régime des frontières » mis en place par l’Union européenne et les États depuis une vingtaine d’années. En 2018, le nombre d’arrivées de migrants par la mer Méditerranée a diminué mais le taux de mortalité n’a cessé d’augmenter. Ce dossier traite des conséquences de la mort par migration. Caractérisées par la diversité de leurs ancrages disciplinaires et par leur richesse empirique en termes de lieux et de méthodes, les contributions réunies ici décrivent les conditions dans lesquelles s’exerce la violence frontalière dans l’espace maritime Méditerranée, les mobilisations des proches des morts et disparus (compagnons d’infortune, familles, pêcheurs), les enjeux de l’identification et de la reconstitution des histoires et pratiques d’inhumation ainsi que les facteurs économiques sous-jacents à la politique mortuaire. En révélant les mises en récit et les symboles produits autour de la question des corps de migrants morts ou disparus aux frontières de la Méditerranée, ce dossier s’inscrit résolument dans un courant critique des sciences sociales.” (présentation éd.)

 

 

 

 

 

Illustration@Stéphanie Bonnefille (programme Médimurs), Cimetière des bateaux, Lampedusa, 2014

PUBLICATIONS DU PROGRAMME MÉDIMURS / EFFETS-FRONTIÈRES EN MÉDITERRANÉE

Evelyne Ritaine, “Migrants morts, des fantômes en Méditerranée”, Rhizome n°64 (en ligne), Ces morts qui existent, juin 2017

http://www.ch-le-vinatier.fr/orspere-samdarra/rhizome/bulletin-rhizome-n64-ces-morts-qui-existent-790.html

Republié en juin 2017 dans La Boussole, magazine interne de Médecins du monde : http://laboussole.medecinsdumonde.org/?p=19960

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Olivier Clochard, Julie Lemoux, “Voyager d’Alger à Marseille – Retour sur cinq décennies de dispositifs relatifs aux contrôles des migrations”, L’Espace Politique [En ligne], 31, 2017-1

http://espacepolitique.revues.org/4261

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Stephanos MANGRIOTIS, Blue Sky from Pain, Film, 2016

Argument : http://www.dekadrage.org/archeologie-dune-frontie/                     Disponible sur Viméo

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Évelyne RITAINE, “Lampedusa, 3 ottobre 2013. Letture politiche della morte”, Dossier/ I morti del Mediterraneo, Intrasformazione, 2016, 5 (1), 101–112, (en ligne)

http://www.intrasformazione.com/index.php/intrasformazione/issue/view/9/showToc

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EFFETS-FRONTIERES EN MEDITERRANEE : CONTROLES ET VIOLENCES, Cultures & Conflits, 99-100, 2015, (en ligne)

https://www.cairn.info/revue-cultures-et-conflits.htm

Sommaire :

Évelyne RITAINE, “Blessures de frontière en Méditerranée” (introduction)

Laurence PILLANT, Louise TASSIN, “Lesbos, l’île aux grillages. Migrations et enfermement à la frontière gréco-turque”

Paloma MAQUET, “Passer le port ? La gestion des passagers clandestins au Pirée”

Lorenzo GABRIELLI, “Récurrence de la crise frontalière : l’exception permanente en Espagne”

Paolo CUTTITTA, “La frontière Lampedusa. Mises en intrigue du sécuritaire et de l’humanitaire”

Évelyne RITAINE, “Quand les morts de Lampedusa entrent en politique : damnatio memoriæ”

Chronique bibliographique /

Évelyne RITAINE, “Du pouvoir d’exposer à la mort à/par la frontière”

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Évelyne RITAINE, “Le bois des épaves”, projet Displaced Objects, Non lieux de l’exil,

https://displacedobjects.com/2015/12/18/le-bois-des-epaves-evelyne-ritaine/

Avec des images complémentaires ici :

https://enigmur.hypotheses.org/4746

– – Republié dans De ligne en ligne, BPI Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2016, 20

http://www.bpi.fr/files/live/sites/SiteInstitutionnel/files/emags/de-ligne-en-ligne/20avecXml/index.html#/1/

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Paolo CUTTITTA, “La « frontiérisation » de Lampedusa, comment se construit une frontière” L’Espace Politique, 2015, 25, (en ligne)

http://espacepolitique.revues.org/3336

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Évelyne RITAINE, La fabrique politique d’une frontière européenne en Méditerranée. Le « jeu du mistigri » entre les Etats et l’Union, Paris, Etudes du CERI, n°186, Juillet 2012, (en ligne)

http://www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/sites/sciencespo.fr.ceri/files/Etude%20186.pdf

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Création et animation du carnet de recherches ENIGMUR (réseau Hypothèses), depuis 2011.

https://enigmur.hypotheses.org/

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Recherche menée avec le soutien du Conseil régional d’Aquitaine et du Centre Emile Durkheim, Sciences po Bordeaux, sous la responsabilité scientifique d’Evelyne Ritaine, 2011-2015. Ont participé à ce programme : F. Ballif, L. Beurdeley, S. Bonnefille, F. Burchianti, O. Clochard, P. Cuttitta, L. Gabrielli, S. Imbert-Vier, L. Lemaire, J. Lemoux, S. Mangriotis, P. Maquet, R. Matuszewicz, L. Pillant, E. Ritaine, L. Tassin.

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Crédit photo : Stéphanie Bonnefille, Cimetière des bateaux de Lampedusa, 2014, programme Médimurs

 

 

Samuel Norton Chambers, Geoffrey Alan Boyce, Sarah Launius & Alicia Dinsmore, Mortality, Surveillance and the Tertiary “Funnel Effect” on the U.S.-Mexico Border: A Geospatial Modeling of the Geography of Deterrence, Journal of Borderlands Studies, 31 Jan 2019

https://doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2019.1570861

ABSTRACT

Theories of migration deterrence have long posited that border enforcement infrastructure pushes migration routes into more rugged and deadly terrain, driving an increase in migrant mortality. Applying geospatial analysis of landscape and human variables in one highly-trafficked corridor of the Arizona / Sonora border, we test whether the expansion of surveillance infrastructure has in fact shifted migrants’ routes toward areas that are more remote and difficult to traverse. We deploy a modeling methodology, typically used in archaeological and military science, to measure the energy expenditure of persons traversing the borderlands. Outcomes of this model are then compared to the changes in border infrastructure and records of fatality locations. Findings show that there is a significant correlation between the location of border surveillance technology, the routes taken by migrants, and the locations of recovered human remains in the southern Arizona desert. Placed in the context of ongoing efforts by the United States to geographically expand and concentrate border surveillance and enforcement infrastructure, we argue that this suggests a third “funnel effect” that has the outcome of maximizing the physiological toll imposed by the landscape on unauthorized migrants, long after migration routes have moved away from traditional urban crossing areas.

KEYWORDS: GIScience, health, human migration, border surveillance, biopolitics, spatial analysis

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illustration @ Damien Simonneau, avec son accord

Stephan Scheel, Funda Ustek-Spilda, The politics of expertise and ignorance in the field of migration management, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, April 25,

https://doi.org/10.1177/0263775819843677

Abstract

This paper shows that the field of migration management features a politics of expertise through which migration is enacted as a reality that can be managed because it can be precisely quantified. For instance, the International Organization for Migration maintains a “Global Migration Flows Interactive App.” This interactive map suggests that the number of people migrating from country A to B can be exactly known at any point in time. This enactment of migration sits in contrast with the widely acknowledged unreliability and noncoherence of migration statistics. This paper investigates how this tension is negotiated through the production of “strategic ignorance” (McGoey) about the known limits of quantifying migration. Drawing on work from ignorance studies we highlight four practices producing strategic ignorance: (1) omission of the significant gap between recorded immigration and emigration events, (2) compression of different accounts of migration into one “world migration map,” (3) deflection of knowledge about the specifities of different methods to production sites of statistical data, and (4) usage of metadata for sanitizing the statistical production process of any messy aspects. Our analysis shows that the politics of expertise in the field of migration management are intertwined with a politics of ignorance.

Keywords

Enactment, expertise, ignorance, International Organization for Migration, migration statistics, nonknowledge, performativity