Archives de catégorie : Migrants à la mer

Erri De Luca et les « pêcheurs d’hommes » en Méditerranée; lemonde.fr, 11/05/2017

Au printemps, l’écrivain italien a passé deux semaines à bord du « Prudence », le nouveau navire de sauvetage affrété par Médecins sans frontières. Il raconte.

(…) « Il y a vingt ans que des radeaux à moteur voyagent sur la Méditerranée sans aucun ­secours. Maintenant qu’il existe enfin une communauté internationale d’intervention rapide en mer, ce serait de sa faute si les ­bateaux pneumatiques partent. C’est comme si l’on disait que les maladies existent à cause des médicaments.

Si les dauphins venaient en aide aux disparus en mer, ces écervelés les accuseraient de complicité avec les trafiquants. En réalité, ils accusent les sauveteurs d’interrompre le déroulement normal du naufrage.

Pourtant, nous sommes et devons rester des contemporains acharnés de la plus longue et massive noyade en mer de l’histoire humaine » (…)

http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2017/05/11/erri-de-luca-et-les-pecheurs-d-hommes-en-mediterranee_5126420_3232.html#oeYVVyF6r8gUyf4e.99

Lire : Erri De Luca : Aller simple (éd. bilingue), Paris, Gallimard, 2012.

photo @ S. Bonnefille, Lampedusa,2015, programme Médimurs.
Mimmo Paladino,Porta di Lampedusa, Porta d'Europa,  2008

Thierry Baubet, Serena Tallarico, La mer comme espace liminal, Rhizome, 63, 2017

« Étude de cas sur les aspects symboliques et magico-religieux de la traversée de la mer Méditerranée

La mer Méditerranée, dont le nom dérive du latin mediterraneus (au milieu des terres) a été depuis toujours un lieu de passage qui offrait la possibilité, à qui se risquait à traverser ses eaux, de réaliser « à la fois un changement d’État et une transformation d’état » (Green, 1999), de passer les frontières entre le familier et l’inconnu, le nous et les autres.

Notre travail dans le cadre de la clinique transculturelle, en Italie et en France, nous a amené à nous interroger sur les mécanismes de construction identitaire et sur la fonction de la rupture, de la trahison, de la violence dans cette quête de transformation sociale et psychique grâce aux rencontres avec des patients venus d’ailleurs.

Qu’en est-il donc du temps et de l’espace du passage, de nos jours, et qu’est-ce qu’il nous indique sur la souffrance psychique des personnes migrantes qui, enfin, arrivent sur nos côtes ?

La théorie de rite de passage de Van Gennep (1909), dont la liminalité constitue une phase fondamentale, nous semble avoir un fort intérêt heuristique pour analyser les processus psychologiques et symboliques qui interviennent au moment du voyage migratoire, car elle évoque à la fois des processus socio-anthropologiques, politiques et psychiques de cette transition.

Selon la définition anthropologique des rites de passage (Fabietti et Remotti, 2009) pendant la période liminale, l’individu, qui participe à un rite de transition, se retrouve dans une phase intermédiaire entre deux positions socialement définies : le vieux rôle qu’il abandonne et le nouveau qu’il doit encore obtenir. Il habite donc une situation de marge entre un état antérieur et un état postérieur.

Cette phase se déroule dans un espace extra-ordinaire (hors de l’ordinaire), comme c’est le cas pour la mer. Ce lieu liminal nous renvoie à la fois à une condition de suspension, d’entre-deux, et en même temps à des dynamiques de transition des limes (frontières), de rupture, de déconstruction – suspension – reconstruction à travers l’abandon de l’identité et la rencontre avec l’altérité. Pour y accéder, la personne doit sortir du territoire de la communauté pour demeurer un certain temps dans un espace potentiellement dangereux, étrange. » (…)

http://www.ch-le-vinatier.fr/orspere-samdarra/rhizome/anciens-numeros/rhizome-n-63-cliniques-et-migrations/la-mer-comme-espace-liminal-2042.html

photo@ Lisa Ritaine, Sculpture de Folon "Partir" , Giardino delle rose, Firenze, Italia,juin 2012, avec autorisation.

H. Crawley, F. Düvell, N. Sigona, No direct flight: new maps show the fragmented journeys of migrants and refugees to Europe, theconversation.com, 02/11/2016

Politicians across Europe have talked about the arrival of refugees and migrants in 2015 and 2016 as if it were an unprecedented “event”, a single coherent flow of people “heading for Europe”. There is a focus on the beginning and end of peoples’ journeys – at the expense of almost everything in between.

Our new research with 500 refugees and migrants in Italy, Greece, Turkey and Malta reveals a much more complicated picture of protracted, fragmented journeys. Between them, our respondents travelled along nearly 100 different routes before eventually reaching Europe, sometimes having spent months or even years living elsewhere. The convergence of these routes in Turkey and Libya helps us to understand why the number of migrants heading to Europe increased to just over a million in 2015.

Although there were two main countries – Turkey and Libya – from which refugees and migrants departed towards Europe, the “back story” to this migration was actually composed of an intricate network of varied routes. This can be clearly seen in the first of two maps we have created by charting the routes of 122 of the 500 people we spoke to between September 2015 and January 2016.

Routes into Europe. MEDMIG., Author provided

For some – mainly those from Iraq and Syria – the journey to Europe was relatively direct. Of the Iraqis we interviewed in Greece, 86% had arrived less than one month after leaving their home country. But for many, the decision to travel to Europe was a much longer process. This was particularly the case for Afghans arriving in Greece, many of whom had lived in Iran for many years or had even been born there, and for Eritreans arriving in Italy, many of whom had lived for extended periods in Sudan, Egypt or Israel.

For many people, the countries to which they originally travelled – including Iran, Sudan, Libya, Turkey – were initially perceived as places where they could settle and live. This is why the vast majority of the world’s refugees remain in low- and middle-income countries. These countries include Turkey, which for the second year running hosted the largest number of Syrian refugees in 2015 – an estimated 2.7m. This compared to Pakistan (1.6m), Lebanon (1.1m), Libya (up to 1m), Iran (979,400), Ethiopia (736,100) and Jordan (664,100). It was only when people found themselves unable to rebuild their lives in these places that they made the decision to move on.

The decision to move, and move on

In previous reports on the Central and Eastern Mediterranean routes, we identified the significant factors driving people to leave their home countries. These included conflict and political persecution, the activities of terrorist and insurgency groups such as Islamic State. Kidnapping and the threat of forced – sometimes indefinite – military conscription, as well as dire economic conditions were also factors.

But if we want to understand the dynamics of migration to Europe we need to differentiate between the initial drivers of migration from countries of origin and those which propel people onwards beyond the immediate neighbouring countries. Some of these drivers reflect the ongoing desire to be safe: Syrians, for example, living in Lebanon who felt too close to the ongoing conflict or feared they might be located by Assad government officials. Or Eritreans who had left due to indefinite military conscription but were unable to rebuild their lives in Sudan due to the civil war there.

But they also relate to an individual’s inability to build or rebuild a life due to a lack of rights and opportunities for employment, particularly where there is protracted conflict.

While all Afghans experience varying degrees of discrimination in Iran, the situation is particularly difficult for those from the ethnic Hazara minority who are more easily identifiable due to their distinctive physical appearance. Those we spoke to had experienced severe discrimination in Iran, had no citizenship rights and faced a shortage of education for their children. Combined with increasing anxieties about what would happen to them if they were forced to return to Afghanistan where Hazara are subject to increasing attacks, this had made life in Iran intolerable. News that they might finally be able to secure protection in Europe propelled those we interviewed to move on.

Libya had also been a destination country for many of those we interviewed in Italy who thought that it would provide opportunities for work, as it has done for many years. But the violent, chaotic reality of everyday life in the country was very different from what they had expected. Those who had little intention of staying in Libya often found their journeys interrupted and stays extended as a result of kidnapping and violence. Others who had intended to settle, work and live in Libya came to realise that they would have to move on again to find somewhere safe.

It was the combination of these different factors – conflict and insecurity in the home country but also in the countries to which refugees and migrants then moved – that led to the convergence of flows in Turkey and Libya and, in turn, the very significant increase in arrivals during 2015, as our second map shows.

Routes into Europe converge. MEDMIG., Author provided

Beyond push and pull

Migration across the Mediterranean in 2015 did not consist of a single coherent flow but rather was made up of a number of distinct sub-flows from many countries and regions. It included both individuals and families with diverse migration histories and experiences. The situation has not changed in 2016 except, of course, that the route from Turkey to Greece and onwards into other EU Member States has now largely closed as a result of the EU-Turkey agreement which provides for the return of those crossing the Mediterranean by boat.

The vast majority of those arriving in Europe during 2015 came from countries in which there was well-documented conflict and human rights abuse. But it is impossible to fully appreciate the complex drivers of migration without examining the ways in which political, economic and social factors come together to shape the experiences of those on the move. The longer people are on the move, the more complicated – and difficult to unpack – these factors become.

The solution to the “crisis” lies not only in opening up, and significantly expanding, safe and legal routes to protection for refugees and migrants, but also addressing the problems faced by those living in countries outside of Europe for whom access to rights, employment, education – and hope – remain elusive.

https://theconversation.com/no-direct-flight-new-maps-show-the-fragmented-journeys-of-migrants-and-refugees-to-europe-67955

photo à la une @Tracking the long and complex journey of refugees and migrants. © Heaven Crawley , Author provided

 

 

Ed Taylor, Diary of a Rescue Worker on the Mediterranean Sea, newsdeeply.com, 04/21/ 2017

In the past week, almost 9,000 people were rescued on the Mediterranean Sea. Ed Taylor, Medecins Sans Frontieres’ project coordinator onboard the MV Aquarius, relives one such rescue on March 26, 2017. The search and rescue vessel, which has a 21-person crew and is run jointly by MSF and French charity SOS Mediterranee, rescued 515 people in five boats on one day last week.

Amid a surge in refugee boats from North Africa, a humanitarian worker describes one grueling day onboard a search and rescue ship on the Mediterranean Sea and his dismay at reactions to such rescues in Europe.

 » (…) It’s easy to question people’s motives from behind a newspaper or a keyboard. This ease is granted by the stability of our nations, but things change and sometimes they change faster than we expect. One day it may be us or our children or our grandchildren running for our lives. If that day comes, I sincerely hope there is someone there to pull us from the water.

Having later signed off on the death certificate and report written by the doctor onboard the Aquarius, I now know that the girl who died was called Berte, after her mother. She was 22 years old, and on the day she died, she chose to wear a red, navy and white striped jersey. »

https://www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/community/2017/04/21/diary-of-a-rescue-worker-on-the-mediterranean-sea

photo @ High seas batter the side of the MSF-SOS Mediterranee search and rescue vessel MV Aquarius, as refugees and migrants attempt to shelter from the wintry conditions on its decks. December, 29, 2016. Kevin McElvaney/MSF

« The Uncounted: Invisible Deaths on Europe’s Borders », Ingeborg Eliassen, newsdeeply.com, 16/02/2017

« There is no official record of the number of refugees who go missing crossing the Mediterranean Sea trying to reach Europe. Ingeborg Eliassen of the Investigate Europe network explores why a European database of migrant deaths does not exist. »

MYTILINI, Greece – « Along an empty corridor, a handwritten note that reads “Register marriages, deaths, births here” signposts the cramped office of Aphrodite Andrikou, a municipal registrar in Mytilini, the capital of the Greek island of Lesbos.

There have been an awful lot of deaths to register on this island lately. In the early months of 2016, the cooling container outside Mytlini’s hospital was often full, and staff had to lay dead bodies inside the building.

Andrikou and her two colleagues have worked many long evenings and missed many family Sunday lunches to fill out all the death protocols since late 2015.

“I’m not complaining, we must care about the dead. That is our job,” says Andrikou. “This drama and these people have become part of our lives. Often I have been very sad. There were times when I cried a lot.”

In a normal year, approximately 400 people die in the harbor town of Mytilini. But recent years have not been normal.

In 2015, 856,723 refugees and migrants made it across the narrow stretch of the Aegean Sea from Turkey to the Greek islands. The population of Lesbos is around 86,000.

The numbers have steeply declined since March 2016, when the E.U. made an agreement with Turkey to stem migrant boats. Yet the number of refugees and migrants making the longer, even more dangerous Mediterranean crossing from north Africa to Italy has continued to grow.

The Mediterranean Sea is becoming deadlier every year. The U.N. estimates that at least 5,096 people died or disappeared at sea while trying to reach European soil last year. That is an increase from an estimated 3,771 deaths in 2015 and 600 in 2013.

These are estimates rather than scientific figures. Both the International Organization for Migration and the U.N. refugee agency (UNHCR) try to keep track of deaths based on information from a combination of sources: national coast guards and pathologists, media reports, data from aid agencies and interviews with survivors.

But no European authority has yet taken on the task of counting the dead on Europe’s frontiers. Until then, there will be no official record of the dead. »   (…)

https://www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/articles/2017/02/16/the-uncounted-invisible-deaths-on-europes-borders

Photo@ Ingeborg Eliassen; One part of the cemetery in Castellammare del Golfo in Sicily has been designated for migrants who have drowned in their attempt to reach Italy from northern Africa.

Sur le même thème voir :

Évelyne Ritaine, « Quand les morts de Lampedusa entrent en politique : damnatio memoriæ » , dans Effets-frontières en Méditerranée : contrôles et violences, Cultures & Conflits, 99-100, 2015, (en ligne)

https://enigmur.hypotheses.org/4869

https://www.cairn.info/revue-cultures-et-conflits.htm

Dossier/ I morti del Mediterraneo, Intrasformazione (online), 2016, 5 (1)

https://enigmur.hypotheses.org/4988

http://www.intrasformazione.com/index.php/intrasformazione/issue/view/9/showToc

Et notre rubrique « Migrants à la mer » :

https://enigmur.hypotheses.org/category/medimurs/boats4people